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1996年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题及参考答案

Source: 恒星英语学习网  Onion  2008-01-03  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  
 

Part Ⅳ English-Chinese Translation

The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes.
71 )Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable
consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. Some , how-
ever , are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconception of the form scientif-
ic theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act to alter the growth pattern of different areas.
This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable; but it is a frightening trend. 72)This trend
began during the Second World War, when several govemments came to the conclusion that the
specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally
be foreseen in detail. It can be predicted, however, that from time to time questions will arise
which will require specific scientific answers. It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scien-
tific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order. 73)This seems mostly
effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of
possible consequence in the future.
This kind of support , like all government support , requires decisions about the appropriate
recipients of funds. Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straightforward. But
a decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult. The goal of the
supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting "good " as opposed to "bad" science, but a
valid determination is difficult to make. Generally, the idea of good science tends to become con-
fused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory. 74)However, the
world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's
more fascinating and delightful aspects. 75) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for
thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.


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