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初二英语(下)【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语1. on time2. out of3. all by oneself24. lots of5. no longer6. get back7. sooner or later38. run away9. eat up10. take care4 of11. turn off5 12. turn on13. after a while6 14. make faces 15. teach oneself 16. fall off17. play the piano18. knock7 at19. to one's surprise 20. look up21. enjoy oneself 22. help yourself23. tell a story / stories24. leave....behind ……25. come along8 26. hold a sports meeting9 27. be neck and neck28. as10 ... as29. not so / as ... as30. do one's best31. take part11 in32. a moment late33. Bad luck12!34. fall behind35. high jump36. long jump37. relay13 race38. well done!39. take off40. as usual1441. a pair of42. at once43. hurry off44. come to oneself45. after a while46. knock on47. take care of48. at the moment49. set15 off50. here and there51. on watch52. look out53. take one’s placeII. 重要句型1. We’d better not do sth.2. leave one. oneself3. find one’s way to a place4. stand on one’s head5. make sb. Happy6. catch up with sb.7. pass on sth. to somebody168. spend time doing sth.9. go on doing sth.10. get on well with sb.11. be angry with sb.12. be fed up with sth.13. not…until…14. make room for sb.III. 交际用语1. We’re all by ourselves17.2. I fell18 a little afraid.3. Don’t be afraid.4. Help!5. Can’t you hear anything?6. I can’t hear anything / anybody19 there.7. Maybe it’s a tiger.8. Let’s get it back before they eat the food.9. Did20 she learn all by herself21?10. Could22 she swim when she was23 …years old?11. She didn’t hurt herself.12. He couldn’t buy himself24 many nice things.13. Did he enjoy himself?14. Help yourselves25.15. Bad luck!16. Come on!17. Well done! Congratulations26 (to…)!18. It must be very interesting.19. I don’t think you’ll like it.20. It seems27 to be an interesting book.21. I’m sure (that)… I’m not sure if… I’m not sure what to…22. I hope28 so.23. What was he/she drawing29 when…?24. I’m sorry to trouble30 you.25. Would31 you please…?26. What were you doing at ten o’clock yesterday morning?27. You look tired today.28. You’d better go to bed early tonight, if you can.29. How kind!30. Let’s move the bag, or it may cause32 an accident33.31. It’s really nice of you.32. Don’t mention34 it.33. Don’t crowd35 around him. IV. 重要语法1. 不定代词/副词的运用; 2. 反身代词的用法;3. 并列句;4. 形容词和副词的比较等级;5. 冠词的用法;6. 动词的过去进行时;【名师讲解】1. bring/takeBring表示“带来、拿来”,指从别处朝说话人所在或将在的地方“带来、拿来”。而take则表示“拿去、带走”,它表示的方向与bring相反,指从说话人所在地“拿走、带走”。如:Bring me the book, please. 把那本书给我拿来。Take some food to the old man. 给那位老人带去些食物。2. somebody/ anybody/nobody36 一般说来,somebody用于定句,anybody用于否定句、疑问句和条件状语从句。例如: Somebody came37 to see you when you were out. 你出来时有人来见你。 Does anybody live on this island? 有人在这岛上住吗? I didn't see anybody there. 我在那儿谁也没看见。 Don't let anybody in. I'm too busy to see anybody. 别让任何人进来。我太忙,谁也不想见。 There is nobody in the room. 房间里没人。 Nobody told me that you were ill, so I didn't know about it . 谁也没告诉我你病了。所以我不知道。 3. listen, listen to, hear这三个词意思都是“听”,但是它们的用法不完全相同。它们的区别在于:(1)listen 只用于不及物动词,后面接人或人物做宾语,着重于“倾听”,指的是有意识的动作,至于是否听到,并非强调的重点。如:Listen! Someone39 is singing in the classroom. 听!有人在教室唱歌。(2)listen to 为listen的及物形式,后面一定要接人或物做宾语,这里的to是介词。如:Do you like listening to light music?你喜欢听轻音乐吗?(3)hear 可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词,意思是“听到、听见”,指用耳朵听到了某个声音,表示无意识的动作,着重于听的能力和结果。如:We hear with our ears.我们用耳朵听。She listens but hears nothing.她听了听,但是什么也没有听见。4. many/ much/ a few40/ a little/ few/ little(1)many修饰可数名词,much修饰不可数名词;都表示许多。例如: He has many books.他有许多书。 He drank much milk.他喝了许多牛奶。(2)a few和a little都表示"有一点儿",侧重于肯定,相当于"some",但a few修饰可数名词,a little修饰不可数名词,例如:He has a few friends in London.他在伦敦有一些朋友。Would you like some coffee? Yes, just a little.喝点咖啡好吗?好的,只要一点。(3)few和little表示"几乎没有",侧重否定。few后接可数名词,little后接不可数名词。例如:He is a strange42 man. He has few words.他是个怪人,他几乎不说什么话。Hurry up, there is little time left.赶快,没什么时间了。 5. either43/ neither44/ both either可作形容词,一般指"两者中的任何一个"。有时也可表示"两个都……"的意思,后跟名词的单数形式;neither: 指两者中没有一个,全否定;both: 指两者都,肯定。句中可作主语、宾语和定语,both后面应跟名词的复数形式。如: Neither of the films is good.两部电影都不好。(没有一部是好的) Either of the films is good. 两部电影都不错。(谓语动词用单数) Both the teachers often answer the questions.这两个老师都常常解答问题。6. take part in/jointake part in参加某种活动; join参加,加入某一政党或组织。例如:Can you take part in my party.你能来参加我的派对吗?We often take part in many school activities45.我们经常参加学校里的一些活动。He joined the party in 1963. 他1963年入的党。My little brother joined the army46 last year. 我小弟去年参的军。7. quite/ rather47/ very(1)quite 表示程度“很,十分,完全地”,“相当”。如:She is quite right.她对极了。That's not quite what I want . 那并不完全是我所要的。(2)rather 表示程度上的“相当”,比预想地程度要大,通常用在不喜欢的情况下。如:It's rather cold today.今天的天气相当冷。(3)very表示程度“很,甚,极其,非常”,用于修饰形容词或副词,既可用在喜欢的情况下,也可用于不喜欢的情况下。应注意“a very +形容词+可数名词的单数”结构中,"a"应置于"very"之前,该结构相当“quite a/an +形容词+名词”的结构。如:Two months is quite a long time. / a very long time. 两个月是一段很长的时间。It's a very nice day / quite a nice day. 今天天气很好。【考点扫描】中考考点在本单元主要集中在:1. 不定代词/副词的运用; 2. 反身代词的用法;3. 并列句;4. 形容词和副词的比较等级;5. 冠词的用法;6. 动词的过去进行时;7. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;8. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。【中考范例】1. (2004年江西省中考试题) ---I called you yesterday evening, but there was no answer. ---Oh, I am sorry I ___________ dinner at my friend’s home. A. have B. had48 C. was having D. have had【解析】答案:C。该提考查的是动词的时态。表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作应用过去进行时。2. (2004年北京市中考试题) ---Which is _________, the sun, the moon or the earth49? ---Of course50 the moon is. A. small B. smaller C. smallest D. the smallest【解析】答案:D。该提考查的是形容词的比较等级。三者进行比较,其中最小的应用最高级,而形容词最高级之前必须加顶冠词the。3. (2004年河北省中考试题) Bob never does his homework _________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes51. A. so careful as B. as carefully52 as C. carefully as D. as careful as【解析】答案:B。该提考查的是形容词和副词的用法区别。空白处所缺的词是修饰动词短语does his homework的,应该用副词。另外,表示“某人做事不如某人细心”应用“not as carefully as”这样的结构。 4. (2004年吉林省中考试题) ---I like riding fast. It’s very exciting. ---Oh! You mustn’t do it like that, ________ it may have an accident. A. and B. or C. so D. but 【解析】答案:B。该提考查的是连接并列句的并列连词的选择。And通常连接两个意思一致的并列句,so连接两个有因果关系的并列句,but连接两个有转折关系的并列句,or相当于if not意思是“否则”。【满分演练】一. 单项选择1. Who jumps ________ in your class?A. far B. farther53 C. farthest D. longer2. ---I made54 the cake by ________. Help __________, Tom. ---Thanks, Jane.A. ourselves; yourself B. myself55; yourselfC. myself; yourselves D. ourselves; yourselves3. There ________ a football game on TV this afternoon.A. is going56 to have B. will beC. is going to play D. will play4. Wu Dong was _______ tired that he couldn't keep his eyes_________.A. too, open B. so, closed C. too, closed D. so, open5. Can you hear __________?A. something B. anything C. nothing D. somebody6. The students stop __________ when the teacher came in.A. to talk B. talking C. talked D. talk7. I told him ________ story.A. the whole57 B. the all C. whole the D. all8. Please _________ early tomorrow, mum.A. wake58 up me B. wakes59 me upC. wake me up D. will wake me up9. He will go to the Great Wall if it __________ tomorrow.A. won60't rain B. doesn't rain C. don't rain D. isn't raining10. Can you tell us _________?A. where have you gone B. where you have goneC. where have you been D. where you have been11. Li Lei, sit down, please. I'll ________ you some tea.A. take B. to bring C. get D. give12. Don't forget to _________ your dictionary61 here tomorrow.A. take B. bring C. carry D. borrow13. He couldn't wash ________ when he was five years old.A. his B. him C. himself D. herself14. Why did you leave your daughter at home all by ________.A. yourself B. himself C. herself D. myself15. I bought my son a bike, _________ he like it a lot.A. and B. but C. or D. at16. _______ , Li Lei was far behind the others62 at first.A. At the 800-metre race B. In the 800-metres raceC. In the 800-metre rece D. At the 800-metres race17. My parents are teachers. They _________ teach English.A. Both B. all C. both D. are18. Kate is an __________ girl.A. eight-year-old B. eight-years-oldC. six-year-old D. six-years-old19. Who jumped _________ of all in the long jump?A. longest B. longer C. farther D. farthest20. The runner63 fell, but he quickly got64 up and _______.A. went on running B. went on to runC. went on run D. went on ran41二. 完型填空 Mr Smith left his car 1 his house one night, but when he came down the nest_2 to go to his office, he found65 the car 3 there. He called the police66 and told them the 4 . And they said67 they must 5 him to find the car.6 Mr Smith came home from his office that evening, the car was back again in its usual (通常的) place 7 his house, He examined68 (检察) it carefully to see if (是否) it was damaged69 (损坏), and found 8 theatre70 (剧院) tickets on one of the seats71 (座位) and a letter, It said, “We feel very 9 . We took72 your car because we had an mergency (急诊).” Mr and Mrs Smith went to the theatre with the two tickets the next night and 10 themselves73 very much. When they got home, they found thieves74 (贼) took away everything in their house.1. A inside B. outside C. from D. under2. A. evening B. morning C. afternoon D. night3. A. wasn't B. was C. left D. went4. A. wrong B. matter C. thing D. idea5. A. made B. let C. help D. ask6. A. If B. Because C. When D. Before7. A. in the front of B. in front of C. on the front of D. on front of8. A. many B. no C. two D. one9. A. sorry B. afraid C. happy D. sad10. A. helped B. taught C. hurt D. enjoyed三. 阅读理解(A) Do you live in a city? Do you know how cities begin? Long ago, the world had only a few thousand people. These people moved from place to place. They moved over the land38, hunting75 (打猎) animals for food. No one knows how or where these people learned76 about growing food. But when they did, their lives (生活) changed. They didn't have to look for food any more. They could stay in one place and grow it. People began to live near one another. And so the first villages grew. Many people came to work in the village. These villages grew very big. When machines77 came along (出现), life78 in the villages changed again. Factories were built79 (建立). More and more people lived near the factories. The cities grew very big. Today, some people are moving back to small towns. Can you tell why?根据短文内容判断正误:正确的答“A”,错误的答“B”。1. Long ago, a few people could stay in one place, hunting animals for food.2. When these people learned to grow food, their lives changed.3. Factories were built after the cities grew big.4. Today, some people don't live to live in big cities.5. Everyone knows how and where cities began. (B)Almost80 everyone likes dogs, and almost everyone likes to read stories about dogs. I have a friend. He has a large police dog named Jack81. Police dogs are very clever. Every Sunday afternoon my friend takes Jack for a long walk in the park. Jack like these long walks very much.One Sunday afternoon a young man came to visit my friend. He stayed a long time. He talked and talked. Soon it was time for my friend to take Jack for his walk. But the visitor82 still stayed. Jack became83 very worried84. He walked around the room several85 times and then sat86 down in front of the visitor and looked at him. But the visitor paid87 not attention88. He went on talking. Finally89 Jack got angry. He went out of the room and came back a few minutes later. He sat down again in front of the visitor, but this time he took the visitor's cap in his mouth.1. The young visitor stayed a long time, didn't he? __________.A. Yes, he did B. Yes, he didn't C. No, He didn't D. No, he did.2. Jack became very worried because ____________.A. he wanted to have something to eatB. he wanted to play with himC. he wanted to go out D. he didn't know the young man3. Jack sat down in front of the visitor because _____________.A. he wanted to join the talk B. he wanted the visitor to leaveC. he wanted the visitor to talk with himD. he wanted to show the visitor how clever he was4. The visitor went on talking and ________________.A. he didn't like JackB. he paid no attention to JackC. he paid no attention to his capD. he didn't care that his cap was his cap was taken away by Jack5. Jack went out of the room with nothing, but came back with ________ in his mouth.A. something B. nothing C. the visitor's cap D. the visitor's shoe (C)Mr White and his wife90 wanted to paint(油漆) the outside of their house. To save91(节省) money they wanted to do it themselves. On Saturday morning they bought some paint and two brushes(刷子). They began that afternoon with the back ol the house. The next Saturday Mr White went to a football match(比赛) but his wife painted the front of the house. On Sunday they found they couldn't open any of the front windows. They got them all open in the end. But they broke92 three of the seven. They were very dear to mend93. Next time when they want to save money they’ll certainly94 ask somebody to do the work.l. Mr White wanted to paint ___________________ .A. the front of the house B. the back of the houseC. the front windows D. the outside of the house2. They wanted to do the work themselves because_________________ .A. the windows were very easy to break B. the windows were very hard to openC. nobody could do this work wellD. they didn't want to give more money3. The work lasted for about ___________________.A. two days B. less95 than a weekC. three days D. more than a week4. They have to ask somebody to mend the ________________ windows.A. three B. four C . five D. seven5. Next time they will ask somebody to work for them becauseA. they want to go to football matchesB. it is no longer an interesting thing for themC. they have no more paint and brushesD. they really want to save some money四. 据句意,用方框中所给词或短语填空 A. catch up with F. a moment laterB. fell behind G. passing …on to C. getting ready to H. At the same time D. dropped I. neck and neck E1. On the first lap96 J. won 1._________________ the boys and the girls passed the ball to each other. 2.The teacher shouted to the runners_______________, “Come on! Come on!” 3.The Class 4 runner fell and ___________________the others. 4.The monkey is ___________the hat _____________the other small monkeys. 5.What are they doing ? They’re _______________do some cleaning. 6.The runner from Class 2 _____________his slick .Bad luck. 7.LingFeng and Jim were __________________at first. 8.____________________ the students ran very fast, but on the second lap they were too tired to ran farther. 9.Look! The short girl from Class 3 is beginning97 to ______________the girls in front. 10.At last Class One ____________________the boys’ relay race. 五. 完成句子1. 英语是我班最受欢迎的科目之一。 English is _____________ in our class.2.请把这只盒子带到办公室去。 Please __________ to the office.3.我们应该向雷锋同志学习。 We should _____________ comrade98 Lei Feng.4.她正打算去看电影。 She _________ see a film.5.莉莉于1987年6月29日出生在上海。 Lily99 _______________.6.见到你我很高兴。 I _________ to see you.7.看上去她不舒服。 She seems __________sell.8.他也喜欢开妹妹的玩笑。 He also likes to __________ his younger100 sister.9.我很难算出这道题。 It is hard for me to _________ the problem101.10.你能确定他拿了第一名吗? _______________ he got the first prize102? 初二英语(下)【练习答案】一. 1. C 2 B 3 B 4 D 5 B 6.B 7 A 8.C 9.B 10.D 11.C 12 B 13.C 14.C 15.A 16. C 17. C 18. B 19. D 20. A二. 1.B 2.B3.A 4.B 5.C 6.C 7.B 8.C 9.A 10.D三. (A) 1. B 2.A 3.B 4.A 5.B (B) . 1. A 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. C (C) 1. D 2.D 3.D 4.A 5.D四. 1.H 2.F 3.B 4.G 5.C 6.D 7.I 8.E 9.A 10.J 五. 1. one of the most popular103 subjects 2. take the box3. learn from 4. is planning104 to5. was born105 in Shanghai, on June 29, 1987. 6. am happy/pleased7. not to be 8. play jokes106 on 9. work out 10. Are you sure
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