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汉语中的排比翻译

Source: 恒星英语学习网    2017-09-07  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

汉语中我们常说的排比是将三个以上结构相同或相似,语意相关,语气一致的词组或者句子排列起来形成一个整体。恰当地运用排比可以加强气势,突出表达内容,使句式整齐,富有感染力,给读者留下深刻的印象。

排比有两个字的、三个字的、四个的短语,也有句子的排比,下面我就来谈一下排比句翻译的具体方法(本文文学翻译的例子均出自《张培基英译现代散文选》):

直译法


因为它是一种“长期抗战”的力,有弹性,能屈能伸的力,有韧性,不达目的不止的力。
The rock is utterly helpless before this force — a force that will forever remain militant, a force that is resilient and can take temporary setbacks calmly, a force that is tenacity itself and will never give up until the goal is reached.

爱逐臭争利,锱铢必较的,请到长街闹市去;爱轻嘴薄舌的,争是论非的,请到茶馆酒楼去;爱锣鼓钲镗,管弦嗷嘈的,请到歌台剧院去;爱宁静淡泊,沉思默想的,深深的小巷在欢迎你。
Those who strive after fame and gain, and haggle over every penny, please go to the downtown area! Those who are sharp-tongued and quarrelsome, please go to the teahouse or restaurant! Those who love deafening gongs and drums as well as noisy wind and string instruments, please go to the opera house or theatre! Those who are given to profound meditation and a quiet life without worldly desires, welcome to the lane!

这里有美丽的山水,肥沃的田畴,同时又有黑暗的监狱和刑场。在这里坏人得志、好人受苦,正义受到摧残。在这里人们为了争取自由,不得不从事残酷的斗争。在这里人们在吃他的同类的人。——那许多的惨酷的景象,那许多的悲痛的回忆!
Here, besides beautiful mountains and rivers and fertile farmland, we have ghastly prisons and execution grounds as well. Here bad people hold sway while good people suffer and justice is trodden down underfoot. Here people have to wage a savage struggle in order to win freedom. Here man eats man. O the numerous terrible scenes! O the numerous sad memories!
以上三例,都出自《张培基英译现代散文选》,属于文学翻译,三者的共同之处就在于都采取了平行结构来翻译原文中的排比句。这样做的好处是最大限度地保留了和原文的对等, 以基本保留原文的形式美和声音美,而直译法也是文学翻译排比句的常用手法。


不管国际风云如何变幻,中国政府和人民都将高举和平、发展、合作旗帜⋯⋯
Whatever changes take place in the international situation, the Chinese government and people will always hold high the banner of peace, development and cooperation.

过去十多年来,中国一贯积极倡导和践行互信、互利、平等、协作的新安全观。
For more than a decade, China has been a strong champion of new security outlook, which has at its very core mutual trust, mutual benefit, equity and coordination.
“和平、发展、合作”和“互信、互利、平等、协作”都是最基本的二字格排比,所以字面直译是最简单快捷的处理方法。直译一般出现于二字格、三字格排比中,因为这两种类型多属于固定搭配,一般不存在太多的翻译技巧处理。

合并或减译


我的生活曾经是悲苦的、黑暗的。然而朋友们把多量的同情、多量的爱、多量的欢乐、多量的眼泪分了给我。这些东西都是生存所必需的。(巴金《朋友》)
There was a time when my hfe was miserable and gloomy. My friends then gave me in large quantities sympathy, love joy and tears— things essential for existence.
译文把“多量的同情、多量的爱、多量的欢乐、多量的眼泪”中的多量合并,只用了一个“large quantities”。


最近,中国组建了国家安全委员会,提出了国家总体安全观,即以人民安全为宗旨,以政治安全为根本,以经济安全为基础,以军事、文化、社会安全为保障,以促进国际安全为依托,走出一条中国特色国家安全道路。
Recently, China has launched a new National Security Comission and prosped a new holistic approach to national security. This new Chinese approach encompasses many aspects of security, including security of the people, of the political system, the economy, defense, culture, society and international environment.
本句中“为宗旨,为根本,为保障,为依托”并不是在强调他们的地位或作用,而是强调这些内容都包含在”国家总体安全观”中,因此进行了合理的压缩。

燕子去了,有再来的时候;杨柳枯了,有再青的时候;桃花谢了,有再开的时候。(朱自清《匆匆》)
If swallows go away, they will come back again. If willows wither, they will turn green again. If peach blossoms fade, they wm flower gain.
增译if使得行文更加流畅。

使用同义词替换

于是— — 洗手的时候,日子从水盆里过去;吃饭的时候,日子从饭碗里过去;默默时,便从凝然的双眼前过去。(朱自清《匆匆》)
Thus the day flows away through the sink when I wash my hands; vanishes in the rice bowl when I have my meal; passes away quietly before the fixed gaze of my eyes when I am lost in reverie.
原文中三个分句都重复了“过去”,译文则分别采用“flows away”、“vanishes”、“passes away”三个同义词组进行一一对应。这样译文中既构成了和原文相似的、平行的句法结构,又避免了完全的重复。

语句转换与重组(常见于政经类文章)

向促改革要动力,向调结构要助力,向惠民生要潜力, 既扩大市场需求,又增加有效供给,努力做到结构调优而不失速。
We promoted reform to gain impetus for development, made structural adjustments to produce support for development, and improved living standards to increase the potential for development. We both expanded market demand and increased effective supply, working to ensure that structural adjustments were made without compromising the growth rate.
本句中三个“向…要”分别采用不同句式,避免了句式的重复。另外,为了避免”一逗到底”情况,译文三句一断,保证译文清晰流畅。当处理排比分句较多的情况时,必须以仔细分析原旬,理清各分句问的关系为前提,分别或综合使用不定式,介词短语或者分词结构将原句重组,以体现出原文字里行间的逻辑,也符合英语的”树状结构”。

综上,我们可以看出,汉语排比句式在译成英文时,不可以机械地照序直译,而应当首先弄清组成词组或句子之间内在的逻辑关系,按照英语并列句式的组句特点来翻译。在符合英语句子表达习惯的前提下追求排比句式上的对等。

而直译法多用于字数比较少的词语的排比中,在四字格以及不限字数排比上应用较少,不同于二字格一般属于词组形式,多字格通常涉及短语及句子,在句子结构上若是拘泥于字面直译便容易造成死译,导致译文不够通顺。


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