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形容词比较级如何翻译?

Source: 恒星英语学习网    2017-10-06  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

四,形容词与比较级

形容词的第三大难点即形容词比较级的翻译,说到这里,很多小伙伴不以为然,不就是“比…更…”吗,但是,你要相信考试的时候是不会出“this stick is longer than that one”这类弱智句子的,下面我们一起来缕缕这些时常困扰着我们的比较级~

1, “比较级+than”结构,这类句式比较常见,在翻译时,要先翻译than后面的内容,如:

①Marseilles has proved to be a better racial melting pot than Lyons.
事实证明,与里昂相比,马赛是一个更好的种族大熔炉。
②She’s much happier performing live than in a recording studio.
与在录音棚里录音相比,她更喜欢现场表演。
2,more than 结构

(1)译为否定句 

The complexity of the human situation and justice of the social order demand for more fundamental changes in the basic structure of society itself than some politicians are willing to admit in their speeches.
人类社会的复杂性和社会制度的不公正性,要求对社会基本结构进行改革,而一些政客很不愿意承认这点。(本例选自钱歌川《翻译的技巧》)
(2)译为“与其说,,,倒不如说”等同于not so much as,这个结构同样要先翻than后面

He is more knave than fool.
与其说他蠢,不如说他坏。
His father is more kind than wise.
他的父亲不是智者而是仁士。
(3)在more than+从句(从句中有can/could)中,意为“实在不能”,如:

①The problems of urban areas are far more than can be handled any short - term efforts.
城市地区的问题是不可能短期内解决的。
②That problem is more than I can work out.
我实在解不出那道题。
(4)置于动词前,表示用更强意义的动词也无妨,意为“岂止,深为,极其”。

She more than hesitated to give me a promise.
对于答应那件事她岂止是犹豫。
3,no more than 结构

(1)二者都不

This book is no more interesting than that one.
这两本书都没趣。
I can run no faster than he can.
我跑得不快,他跑得也不快。
有时可译为 “正如A不…,B也不”,如:

A home without love is no more a home than a body with soul is a man.
正如一个没有爱的房子不能称之为家一样,一个没有灵魂的肉体就不能称之为人。
A whale is no more a fish than a horse is.
正如马不是鱼一样,鲸也不是鱼。
(2)no more than 修饰数量时,译为“仅仅,只有” ,如:

①there is no more than eigth people in the room.
房间里只有8个人。
②The northward journey from Jalalabad was no more than 120 miles.
从贾拉拉巴德向北的旅程不到120英里。
(3)与not more than 区别

① no more than 的意思是“仅仅”“只有”“最多不超过”,强调少。如:
 This test takes no more than five minutes. 这项测验只要5分钟。
② not more than 为 more than (多于)的否定式,其意为“不多于,不超过如:Not more than 10 guests came to her party. 来参加她派对的客人不超过十人。
    比较:She has no more than three cats. 她只有3只猫。(强调少)   

 She has not more than three cats. 她至多有3只猫。(也许不到3顶帽子)   

③用于比较两件事物时,no more ... than 表示对两者都否定,意为“同……一样不”(=neither ... nor);而 not more ... than 指两者虽都具有某种特征,但程度不同,意为“不如”、“不及”(= not so ... as)。

简单来说,not more … than表示“前不如后”,而 no more than如:

This book is not more interesting than that one.
这本书不如那本有趣。
This book is no more interesting than that one.
两本书都不有趣。
3,less than 与no less than

(1)less than “不到,少于,…以内”

如:In less than seven days the infested plants had recovered.
不到7天时间,受虫害侵袭的植物就复原了。
(2)no less than

①多达,不少于

There were no less than fifty wounded.
受伤者多达50人。
He is no less than fifty centimetres round the middle.
他的腰围不小于五十公分。
②简直是

It is no less than robbery to charge so much.
要这么多钱,简直是抢劫。
③与…一样,不比…差

He is no less wise than you.
他和你一样聪明。


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